Patients present to the ED with visual disturbances that may be painful or painless and may include loss of visual acuity, field cuts, diplopia, and headache. A detailed history and complete ocular examination are essential to obtaining the correct diagnosis and offering expedited treatment and referral.
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Here are a few key points:
- Iritis or anterior uveitis presents with consensual photophobia, pain, and blurry vision. On slit lamp examination, cells and flare will be noted in the anterior chamber.
- Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a true emergency. It can be triggered by medications, dim lighting, or even emotional upset.
- Treat acute angle-closure glaucoma with a combination of medications to reduce aqueous humor production (topical beta blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, or mannitol if refractory) and medications to increase aqueous humor outflow (topical phenylephrine, pilocarpine, and a topical steroid).
- Floaters can be caused by retinal tears, vitreous detachment, and vitreous hemorrhage.
Last Updated on January 26, 2023